The phrase "Deep Ecology" first appeared in a 1973 article by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss. In 1985, Bill Devall and George Sessions summed up their understanding of the concept of deep ecology with the following eight points
01. The well-being of human and non-human life on earth is of intrinsic value irrespective of its value to humans.
02. The diversity of life-forms is part of this value.
03. Humans have no right to reduce this diversity except to satisfy vital human needs.
04. The flourishing of human and non-human life is compatible with a substantial decrease in human population.
05. Humans have interfered with nature to a critical level already, and interference is worsening.
06. Policies must be changed, affecting current economic, technological and ideological structures.
07. This ideological change should focus on an appreciation of the quality of life rather than adhering to an increasingly high standard of living.
08. All those who agree with the above tenets have an obligation to implement them.
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